Friday, 2 November 2012

Development of Political Parties and Design of Electoral System

The establishment of state and its democratic regime will cultivate the rise of political parties and politicians and the running for elections within the national border. Electoral system provides rule-based mechanism on transforming voters’ preferences into seats in the national assembly. However, political parties are seen as the main players and a vehicle that office seekers have to integrate themselves into political parties in order to get nominations for elections. For a newly democratic state, there are a lot of works to be done such as the selection of electoral system, the establishment of electoral institution and electoral rules, and constituencies and the electorates. Furthermore states are normally troubled with the problem of ethnicity and diverse cultures, and the fragmentation of territoriality and political cleavage, all of which are affecting the process of making decisions to choose the best electoral system for the country in order to maintain harmony, ethnic representation, and national unity. Then, nationalization of politics is needed in order to integrate all issues into national standard and to ensure the success of national election.  Electoral system and political parties have become a subject of serious discussion by many scholars in designing of electoral system and conducting the nationalization of politics. Three scholars, namely Daniele Caramani, Charles Boix, and Kathleen Bawn, have made valuable contribution on these issues.